October 2, 2020 zacherlaw 0 Comments

The Flanders Hotel in Ocean City, NJ recently completed more than $10 million in renovations, revamping almost every portion of the hotel and adding 21 new suits. But the expansion created major issues for the building’s HVAC system’s cooling towers: the old metal-clad tower struggled to provide adequate cooling for the expansion. To ensure comfort for their guests, the Flanders went about updating its cooling tower system. After many consultations with engineers, the hotel’s Director of Operations came across a metal tower alternative constructed out of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Little did the Flanders know that this alternative would come with…

October 23, 2018 zacherlaw 0 Comments

This office has handled many cases of Legionnaires’ disease acquired from a spa, hot tub or Jacuzzi. The recent outbreak in Hampton, New Hampshire is a case in point. One possible source of this outbreak is in the indoor spa at the Sands Resort in Hampton. The reasons a spa may be a source is due to the nature of the system supplying water to the spa. The system itself is called a closed loop system. This means that the water supplying the spa, hot tub or Jacuzzi is in a continuous loop closed off from other water systems in…

October 22, 2018 zacherlaw 0 Comments

Many people are not aware that showers are a major source of the legionella bacteria being transmitted to a human. This transmission occurs because of a buildup of the legionella bacteria, which causes Legionnaires’ disease, in the showerhead. Once the bacteria is in the showerhead, water containing the bacteria passes through the showerhead holes, thereby aeroslozing  the water and allowing for the inhalation of the bacteria into the lungs of the person getting Legionnaires’ disease. One way to prevent the buildup of the bacteria in the showerhead is to replace the showerheads periodically. Another method is to take off the…

October 17, 2018 zacherlaw 0 Comments

As promised, this blog will cover US legislative attempts to control the bacteria legionella that causes Legionnaires’ disease. While many states have requirements as to the amount of residual chlorine that must be present in spas, no state has legislation to curtail legionella in cooling towers than New York. Unfortunately, the New York legislation does not cover the potable water system (showers, faucets, holding tanks, etc.) in a building, or any water feature such as a lobby fountain. This is completely different from the approach taken in the UK as explained in an earlier blog, which is national in nature…

September 7, 2018 zacherlaw 0 Comments

Three important pieces of evidence have been revealed through the media so far about the outbreak at the Sands Resort. The owner did not have a permit for the spa, there was legionella bacteria in numerous places through out the hotel and not just the spa, and numerous people who have been associated with the hotel who have contracted the disease.  These facts are important for the following reasons. Permits are issued to make sure the spa holder complies with all regulatory requirements, e.g. the amount of chlorine in the spa. Finding legionella in two different water systems within the…

July 23, 2018 zacherlaw 0 Comments

The Southern Nevada Health District has launched an investigation into two reported cases of Legionnaire’s Disease connected to Harrah’s Laughlin Hotel and Casino.  The affected guests stayed at the hotel in November 2017 and March 2018. The normal incubation period for Legionnaire’s Disease is 2 to 10 days after exposure. The Health District is urging any guests who stayed at the hotel and exhibited symptoms of Legionnaire’s Disease as early as October 2017 to report their illness via survey at www.snhd.info/survey2018. The Health Department conducted testing of Harrah’s at Laughlin confirming the presence of Legionella in various water samples collected…

March 20, 2018 zacherlaw 0 Comments

In another attempt to review some of the basics regarding Legionnaires’ disease and Legionella bacteria, this post will go over the mechanism of how an individual biologically contracts Legionnaires’ disease. To start, Legionella bacteria has to enter the lung, either through the aspiration of water which has been contaminated by Legionella bacteria or the inhalation of aerosolized water or soil which has been contaminated by Legionella bacteria. When in the lung, the Legionella bacteria are eventually consumed by a form of a white blood cell known as macrophages. Once inside of the macrophages within the lung, the Legionella bacteria will multiply which causes the…

March 8, 2018 zacherlaw 0 Comments

In today’s post, we will be taking a step back once again to review some basics surrounding Legionnaires’ disease. As such, a fundamental bit of information which may prove useful for future conversations is simply what the treatment for Legionnaires’ disease looks like in a broad way. The answer, in short, is antibiotics since in one way, a big part of treating Legionnaires’ disease is, put simply, treating a bacterial infection. A more specific answer, however, would include us listing some of the more effective antibiotics. As such, some examples include tetracyclines, quinolones, most macrolides, and ketolides. The reason these particular antibiotics are effective…

February 22, 2018 zacherlaw 0 Comments

Over the course of this blog, many subjects have been covered however perhaps as a reminder and as a step back, it is prudent to review exactly how individuals contract Legionnaires’ disease. As mentioned before, Legionnaires’ disease is often contracted by breathing in aerosolized water (and in some cases, soil) that has Legionella bacteria. As such, Legionnaires’ disease cannot be given from one individual to another. The Legionella bacteria grows the best in warm temperatures so can often thrive in locations like cooling towers, evaporative condensers, and hot water tanks. The Legionella pneumophila causes around 90% of all Legionnaires’ disease cases and can survive…

February 7, 2018 zacherlaw 0 Comments

Once more, it appears perhaps a prudent time to take a step back to examine Legionnaires’ disease. As such, while in a previous post we discussed some of the signs, symptoms, and diagnostic methods for identifying Legionnaires’ disease, today’s post seeks to review the history of Legionnaires’ disease. While Legionella bacteria and Legionnaires’ disease has presumably existed for a very long time, it was only truly discovered and researched after an outbreak in 1976. At a convention of the American Legion in Philadelphia, numerous attendees began to suffer from this type of pneumonia, i.e. lung infection, a phenomena which garnered…